Sam Stern

Testicular Cancer
Statistics
  • About 8,590 new cases of testicular cancer will be diagnosed in 2012
  • About 360 of these men will die from testicular cancer
  • In the last decade, the rate of testicular cancer in the United States and other countries has increased
  • The risk of contracting this cancer in a lifetime is 1 in 270
  • The risk of dying is 1 in 50,00 because of effective treatment methods
Facts
  • Specific cause of testicular cancer unknown
  • Possible catalysts are abnormal testicle development, history of undescended testicle, Klinefelter syndrome, HIV, and exposure to chemicals
  • This cancer usually affects men ages 15-35, with some rare cases affecting older men and young boys
  • Cancer grows from the germ cells that produce sperm
  • There are two main types of testicular cancer: Seminoma and Nonseminoma
Seminoma
Nonseminoma
-slow-growing cancer found in men in 30-40s
-found in testes but sometimes spreads to the lymph nodes
-radiation is very effective treatment
-more common, grows quicker than Seminomas
-tumors are made up of more than one cell: Choriocarcinoma, Embryonal carcinoma, Teratoma, Yolk Sac tumor

Symptoms
  • Pain in the testicle
  • Pain in lower back or abdomen
  • Engorging of testicle
  • Excessive development of breast tissue in younger boys
  • Lump or swelling in either testicle
Screening and Diagnosis
  • Physical examination will reveal a firm lump that does not allow light through it
  • United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends regular self-examination because no known effective screening technique exists
  • Abdominal and pelvic CT Scan
  • Blood tests that reveal tumor markers such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta HCG), lactic dehydrogenase
  • Chest x-ray
  • Ultrasound of scrotum
Treatment
  • Treatment, as with all other cancers, depends on type of testicular tumor and stage of the tumor
  • Testicular cancer has stages, much like breast cancer
Stage I is contained in the testicle
Stage II has spread to nearby lymph nodes in the abdomen
Stage III has metastasized to other parts of the body
  • In cases of Nonseminomas and Seminomas treatment includes orchiectomies, which remove the testicle and/or lymphadenectomies which remove the lymph nodes
  • Radiation therapy is used only in patients with Seminoma testicular cancer
  • Chemotherapy is highly effective for patients with both Nonseminoma and Seminoma testicular cancer




external image p-testicular_cancer2.jpg

Resources
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002266/